This biomass can be converted to fundamentals of renewable energy processes solution pdf download energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This new biomass can also be used directly for biofuels. As of 2011, mandates for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states or provinces. 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal.
Brazil were made with a hybrid fuel system of bioethanol and gasoline. First-generation” or conventional biofuels are biofuels made from food crops grown on arable land. The sugar, starch, or vegetable oil obtained from the crops is converted into biodiesel or ethanol, using transesterification, or yeast fermentation. Biomass is derived from plant materials, but can also include animal materials. This has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is that, unlike with regular food crops, no arable land is used solely for the production of fuel.
The disadvantage is that unlike with regular food crops, it may be rather difficult to extract the fuel. For instance, a series of physical and chemical treatments might be required to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels suitable for transportation. This oil-rich algae can then be extracted from the system and processed into biofuels, with the dried remainder further reprocessed to create ethanol. Many companies are pursuing algae bioreactors for various purposes, including scaling up biofuels production to commercial levels. Similarly to third-generation biofuels, fourth-generation biofuels are made using non-arable land. However, unlike third-generation biofuels, they do not require the destruction of biomass.